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The Statement of Chemistry on the Origin of Life

The Statement of Chemistry on the Origin of Life –American Thinker

In his August 1954, Scientific American article, “The Origin of Life,” Nobel Prize winning Harvard Biologist George Wald stated,

“One only has to contemplate the magnitude of this task to concede that the spontaneous generation of a living organism is impossible. Yet here we are as a result, I believe, of spontaneous generation.”

What is “the magnitude of this task” that reasonably renders a natural origin of life “impossible?” Dr. Wald states,

“In the vast majority of processes in which we are interested the point of equilibrium lies far over toward the side of dissolution. That is to say, spontaneous dissolution is much more probable, and hence proceeds much more rapidly, than spontaneous synthesis.”

The processes of interest include building proteins, DNA, RNA, and lipids. Nature does not engage in the “processes” of building these life-essential molecules (synthesis); Nature, rather, dismantles them (dissolution), if they exist at all.

Why? Nature inexorably proceeds towards “equilibrium” (Chemical Equilibrium), the most stable state. For example, the most stable state for amino acids in Nature is individual amino acids, not proteins.

Building a protein, DNA, RNA, or lipid is an endothermic reaction, which is a reaction that requires an input of energy which will remain with the compound (until Nature takes it apart), plus an activation energy to cause the individual parts to combine. Over-simplifying, the reverse reaction, the destruction of the compound, dissolution, requires only the activation energy which is less energy than required for building, synthesizing, the compound. The dissolution, the destruction of the compound, releases the inherent energy in the compound and is termed an “exothermic” reaction. Nature prefers exothermic reactions, which for the life-essential compounds noted is destruction, not construction. Nature does not construct proteins, DNA, RNA, or lipids.

Dr. Wald further states,

“How do present-day organisms manage to synthesize organic compounds against the forces of dissolution? They do so by a continuous expenditure of energy. … A living organism is an intricate machine for performing exactly that function. … What we ask here is to synthesize organic molecules without such a machine. … it calls for phenomena and forces … some probably yet to be discovered.”

The “phenomena and forces” have not been discovered. The operating principle, Chemical Equilibrium, the foundation of Chemistry, the inexorable progress towards stability, towards death rather than life, will not be overcome, to any useful extent, by natural “phenomena and forces”, ever, in this Universe. That principle, Chemical Equilibrium, the principle upon which Nature’s Chemistry operates is absolute. What is required is an “intricate machine,” a living cell, in a very controlled environment, which uses energy with exceptional precision and design, to build rather than destroy — which is Nature’s direction. A living cell is incredibly complex, “intricate,” and all parts of the cell have to be in place simultaneously or it will not function at all; in fact, Nature will destroy any partial cell (which Nature could never construct at all). The term “simple cell” is the greatest oxymoron in the English language

Dr. Wald proffers probability as a possible solution (“yet … I believe,” because given enough time, Wald speculated, anything can happen), but time is not the savior; time leads to equilibrium, to dissolution, not to “anything,” at least in this Universe. And, if Chemical Equilibrium could be overcome, naturally, where probability would then be relevant, the incomprehensible number of compounds which could be formed could never be sorted, selected to construct anything useful. Both Chemical Equilibrium and probability are absolute blocks to life.

The problem is not what we don’t know; the problem, now revealed by microbiology, is what we do know.

“We now know not only of the existence of a break between the living and non-living world, but also that it represents the most dramatic and fundamental of all of the discontinuities of nature. Between a living cell and the most highly ordered non-biological system, such as a crystal or a snow flake, there is a chasm as vast and absolute as it is possible to conceive.” Michael Denton, Evolution, A Theory in Crisis, p. 249,250, 1985.

Science, specifically, Astronomy, origin of life research via chemistry, Biology, microbiology, the present ability to assess the efficacy of random mutation, Geology, Informatics, and Probability all lead to the conclusion that a designer was necessary.

The designer? Having reviewed the philosophies and religions of the world, the support for the different persuasions and the questions, there is no doubt in my mind that the Designer is the Person revealed in the pages of the Bible.

The statement of Chemistry is that “Life is not a natural phenomenon.”
That statement is absolute.

(Very readable) Sources for understanding the issues: (Excellent source for understanding the issues on origin of life and evolution.)

Darwin’s Black Box, The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, Michael Behe, 1996. (This book addresses the complexity of and route to a molecular machine among the staggering collection of molecular machines comprising the ultimate biological molecular machine, a living cell.)

The Edge of Evolution, The Search for the Limits of Darwinism, Michael Behe, 2008. (It is assumed by Darwinists that random mutation of the genome is an effective mechanism to produce what we see in the fossil record. Given our recent ability to sequence the genomes of organisms, that assumption can now be directly addressed.)

Dr. Michael Behe’s responses to his critics (on the web) are also a very informative source of information and perspective.

Evolution, A Theory in Crisis, Michael Denton, 1985. (This will be current material for many more decades. Dr. Denton applies science to assess the data on the origin of life and its subsequent development.)

Programming of Life, Donald E. Johnson, 2010. (Ever write a computer program? Information is another absolute roadblock to a natural origin of life.)  (Excellent source on astronomy, geology, the Earth’s formation, as well as origin of life and evolution.)

Genesis, The Scientific Quest for Life’s Origin, Robert M. Hazen, 2005. (Dr. Hazen, believes in a natural origin of life. This is an excellent book which goes into some detail about the scientific experiments which attempt to address natural origin-of-life issues. After reading it carefully, I wondered if the eminent researchers were listening to what science, chemistry was revealing, and I wondered that none of them named the common underlying problem, Chemical Equilibrium.)


Entrenched “out of Africa” theory disproven!

Three Strikes and we are all out of Africa and into Australia

By Steven & Evan Strong
The most recent mtDNA study we stumbled across, is from our perspective the final nail in the coffin of the Out-of-Africa theory. Once, twice and a third time over, separate genetic studies of Homo sapien sapiens, dingoes and now song birds, stand united in ascribing the same place of origin: Australia.

The genetic facts in these equations are incontestable, the distinctive and unique nature of the mitochondrial DNA of both the dingo and Mungo Man (WLH 3) cannot be matched to any like species on this planet.


In 1991 mtDNA was extracted from the bones of Mungo Man (WLH3). Agreed to be the oldest Homo sapien sapien yet found in Australia and dated by Alan Thorne to be over 60,000 years old, his internal genetic code should reek of African ancestry. Theoretically, the African castaways who first got to Australia around 50-60,000 years ago would have barely set up camp on a beach thousands of kilometres to the north, but here they were fully settled by a lake system positioned well to the south and a thousand kilometres from any coast. In what is as unexpected as it is inconvenient, a comparison of Mungo Man’s mitochondrial DNA to every other hominid and primate past and present, came up empty. The lack of connection to any person, ape or monkey presented a real problem for the researchers who responded in the only way they could, declaring the sample to be “an extinct gene.”(1) Rather than choosing a description like ‘separate,’ ‘different,’ ‘older,’ or ‘ancestral,’ the idea it is a long lost off-shoot or some form of mutation is self-serving in dismissing Mungo Man as part of an irrelevant genetic cul-de-sac. The real possibility that Mungo Man is not African, nor are any other Original people, is a far less appealing path for mainstream academia to embark.

So too this year’s genetic research investigating the make-up of the dingo found the same lack of connection to any other species or location on the planet outside Australia. After extensive research by a team of Australian geneticists, they were quick to concede that the genes of the dingo are markedly different from all other dogs and wolves found everywhere else. They are adamant that the dingo did not descend from any canine in Southern India or any other location. In the simplest terms the dingo is genetically unique and separate and its ancestry is now unknown. Regrettably but predictably, there is no prospect of further research in solving this genetic impasse. The whole result was unforseen and from the perspective of the academics in research it just doesn’t make sense, and when that happens it easier to walk away and look the other way.

These observations are not opinions but agreed facts, the problem is that what follows is far less digestible. What is as real as it was lamentable is the researchers’ narrow focus in being unable to appreciate all the implications and avenues of research beginning to unfold. The logic lost in transmission is as simple as it is compelling: if the dingo and the oldest modern human found in Australia are genetically unique and cannot be genetically linked to any dog, wolf, human, hominid or primate that ever lived on this planet, they are neither related to others of their type nor do they share a common ancestry.

Bad Science and Lazy Thinking

The insurmountable problem these genetic studies creates is obvious, if both Australian dingo and human are unique, the question that demands to be answered relates to how can it be that there is common belief that Original Australians came from Africa and the ancestor of the dingo lived in Southern India? What is puzzling is that despite the imposing evidence to the contrary, every text, university and lecturer will earnestly claim that the Out-of-Africa theory is an unquestionable fact. Equally, from the same department their books assure us that all dogs, canines and wolves share the same ancestry, but that is not true in the dingoes’ case. All of this smells like bad science and lazy thinking, but it gets worse, there are birds in the air to reconsider and reposition.

In what only highlights the inability of mainstream academia to respond with an open mind and clear vision, yet another mtDNA study of a different species, song birds, came to the same conclusion and continent.

Singing up the Wrong Tree

The Australian researcher who has rewritten so much on the history of birds, entered the field when the prevailing belief that Australia had ‘second-hand bird fauna’ was regarded as a sacrosanct truth. Professor Les Christidis (director of Southern Cross University’s National Marine Science Centre) has impeccable credentials, and we sincerely doubt there is a person more qualified to embark on such a massive study. He has a Bachelor of Science with honours in zoology and genetics (University of Melbourne), a PhD in population and evolutionary genetics (ANU), senior co-author of Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds, co-editor of the Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, and so the list of his achievements continue.

In what is a touch ironic Professor Christidis was a reluctant passenger when it came to birds of any type, and was not an avid bird watcher. From the age of seven he harboured a strong passion to become a zoologist and held no interest in birds, what really captured his attention were mammals. By default he was born in a continent inhabited by marsupials, bats and rodents, and to begin with became interested in the genetics of insects.

It was only while working on insects did Les Christidis realise there was virtually no research being done on birds in Australia. With such a vacuum seen not as an academic black-hole but an opportunity, pragmatism stepped in as he realised that there was an opportunity to become an expert in bird genetics. When first venturing into this academic field, it was blighted by the same narrow focus that taints so much Original archaeology in Australia, that we are merely recipients from abroad. It was assumed that this continent was a global backwater, a place of second-hand birds, dingoes and hominids, somewhat of an afterthought to real action taking place everywhere else on the planet.

When Christidis first suggested that “nightingales, mockingbirds and songbirds around the world originated in Australia then populated the rest of the globe”(2) during “the late 1980s”(3) it was considered “ludicrous.”(4) “When we first suggested this … we got laughed at … Australia doesn’t have that many birds relative to the rest of the world, so how can it be the centre of everything? It turns out that lowly Australia is the centre. Australia can lay claim to songbirds without a shadow of a doubt.”(5)


As Professor Christidis started to analyse the real science, as opposed to comfortable assumptions, he too found everything was back-the-front. Australia was never a passive recipient but a major global provider. “Up until the last four or five years it’s always been thought that the passerine birds originated in the northern hemisphere and spread south and that’s been the gospel for the last 200 years.”(6)

“The Gospel”(7) Versus Good Science

For daring to suggest a species evolved in Australia first, Les Christidis was attacked by many academic quarters and for quite some time no accepted journal would go near him or his research. This sounds so familiar and is the same decidedly hostile path we are also trying to navigate. As expected such a revolutionary theory gained very little traction and was “mocked by the scientific community.”(8) After receiving a not so “friendly response”(9) the criticism was certainly ramped up in vitriol, so much so that they did concede thinking “let’s not pursue it anymore because you know, life’s too short to have to constantly be ridiculed on these things.”(10) Fortunately good science did prevail over bad manners and we noted that with further genetic research in collaboration with European researchers, they eventually confirmed their initial findings. With the tick gained abroad, as is so often the case, all Australian academics then fell into line.

What is rather ironic and symptomatic of the conservative academic climate is that which was vigorously denied by the experts then, is now accepted “without a shadow of a doubt”(11) as a scientific truth. But to begin with this latter-day fact was regarded as a ridiculous proposition, and a permanent reminder of the intellectual apathy that reigned at the time and how quickly people in control never learn from the errors.

In our experience this predisposition towards labelling anything new as “ludicrous”(12) is actually a collective aversion towards questioning evidence inconvenient or unfamiliar. But as things stood, in Australia in 1986 this country was assumed to be a land of ‘second-hand’ birds, a place where one species of what is now categorised a non-dog/wolf was thought to be a younger off-shot of a dog from Southern India, and a continent who were populated by a people who came from Africa. Even though the mtDNA extracted from the oldest Original person (Lake Mungo Man) has no relationship to any African and was deemed to be an “extinct gene,”(13) nothing really changes in the corridors of …

The Original Verdict

As is our custom and preference, we always seek Original guidance when dealing with any aspect of Lore and ancient Australian history, there is no other course available. But in going back to the very beginning, first hand witness accounts are sparse on the ground, and under these conditions near enough will suffice. There is an account found in A. W. Reed’s book Aboriginal (sic) Myths, Legends & Fables which provides an exceptional overview as to the interconnectedness of dingo, human, bird and all creations, and the place from which all forms of creation originated.

In a Dreaming story, The Making of Mankind, which is essentially about “how the world began and was populated with animal life,”(14) the Creation Spirit Biamie “was entrusted the task of forming and caring for animal life.”(15) This was first occurring in Australia, but Biamie’s task was “lacking.”(16) The missing ingredient to complete what he set out to do was “the form and intelligence of man.”(17)

At this point the narrative gets decidedly genetic, but leaving that aside, there is an underlying message of an eternal inter-species connection that seems long forgotten in today’s race forward. Adamant this genesis took place in the land where Original people always inhabited since the beginning, the Original Creation Spirit had all but completed his plan of life. “When at last the experiments were complete. Baiame gathered birds, animals, and insects together in a cave. Baiame and Yhi acted in concert, plucking what may be described as the incubated fragments of the spirit of man from their animal hosts, amalgamating them into one cohesive whole. The animals looked on in astonishment. The longings and aspirations that belong to man alone were lost to them forever. Content with their nature …”(18)

This Dreaming story is as much about the origins of so many life-forms as it is a cautionary tale about the “desires”(19) and “pride”(20) purged from all of Biamie’s creations bar one, Homo sapien sapiens. Central to this account of creation, is that there is an inherent connection that binds all forms of life and that it all begins here.

The White-fella Verdict

So once again another avenue of research in Australia into an area of genetics that was assumed to be fact, has been found fundamentally flawed and wrong. It would seem that the rest of the world has ‘second-hand’ sapiens, song birds and dogs. Feather, fur or skin, in each case their origin lay in Australia, simply because the genetics and Original Custodians of the Old Ways will have it no other way.

1. Flood, Josephine, Archaeology of the Dreamtime (Marleston, South Australia: J.B. Publishing, 2004) 7.
2. Skatssoon, Judy, “Earliest songbirds had an Aussie twang”, News In Science, (20/07/2004),
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid.
6. Ibid.
7. Ibid.
8. Demasi, Dr Maryanne (Reporter/Prod.), Taylor, Anja (Assoc. Prod/ Researcher.), “Transcript, Story Archive – Songbirds Update”, Catalyst, (01/03/2007),
9. Ibid.
10. Ibid.
11. Ibid.
12. Skatssoon, News In Science.
13. Flood, Archaeology of the Dreamtime, 7.
14. Reed, A.W. Aboriginal Myths, Legends & Fables (Chatswood, Australia: Reed- William Heinemann Australia, 1993) 46.
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.

Roslyn Ross

Ascertaining truth was always hard. It is harder in the past half century and more because academia has taken up the view that opinion is equal to fact. Political correctness abounds and distorts and manipulates data, consciously and unconsciously.


This is what I have always believed. We are not from the one ancestor. We are from several ancestors. We are not all the same species. We are the same genus. We are Homo Africanus, Homo Australis, Homo Sinensis and a lot of others. There is no real proof of the migration, only positive speculation.When are anthropologists going to realise the real story of the Origin of Man. Why are Homo Negris the only “Homo Sapien” to suffer Sickle Cell Anaemia? Why do other ‘species’ have a proclivity to other diseases or tendencies and others are unaffected? Why are Homo Australis prone to addiction and others not?

Established Blackhole “science” disproven!

One of Our Fundamental Assumptions About Black Holes Was Just Overturned in The Lab

We have a problem!

[note: this is analogous to the certainty of global warming.]

Black holes are the most intense and mysterious cosmic phenomena in the Universe, and new research shows we understand even less about them than we thought we did.

A long-standing assumption about the physics taking place in the space immediately surrounding these matter-consuming voids has been found to be incorrect, and the discovery could derail decades of scientific theory.

To be fair, studying black holes is really, really hard. For starters, they’re pretty much invisible, given they pull in everything in their vicinity – even visible light, which is why we can’t see them – plus other forms of radiation, such as X-rays.

But just because they’re invisible to our eyes doesn’t mean we can’t tell they’re there.

“Of course, emission directly from black holes cannot be observed,” explains physicist Guillaume Loisel from Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

“We see emission from surrounding matter just before it is consumed by the black hole. This surrounding matter is forced into the shape of a disk, called an accretion disk.”

That’s because when matter gets pulled in to the accretion disk around a black hole, it becomes intensely heated and produces a bright glow that can be seen by instruments that detect X-rays.

This kind of technique is what’s enabled scientists to discover things like matter wobbling around black holes, measure gas flows emanating from them, and record tidal disruption events – where black holes rip entire stars apart.

But there could be a problem with one aspect of the theory around black holes and their accretion disk emissions that might impact much research conducted in the past two decades.

“The catch is that the plasmas that emit the X-rays are exotic,” says one of the team, Jim Bailey, “and models used to interpret their spectra have never been tested in the laboratory till now.”

To physically recreate the conditions around a black hole as closely as possible, the researchers used Sandia’s Z machine – the planet’s most powerful X-ray generator.

Their aim was to test something called resonant Auger destruction – the notion that under a black hole’s immense gravity and intense radiation, highly energised iron electrons don’t emit light in the form of photons.

This assumption has been a mainstay of black hole theoretical physics for some 20 years, but in a massive five-year experiment at Sandia, the team found that resonant Auger destruction didn’t occur when they applied intense X-ray energies to a film of silicon.

According to the researchers, silicon experiences the Auger effect more frequently than iron, so the tests should have demonstrated the phenomenon at work if the assumption is true.

“If resonant Auger destruction is a factor, it should have happened in our experiment because we had the same conditions, the same column density, the same temperature,” says Loisel.

“Our results show that if the photons aren’t there, the ions must be not there either.”

The end result may be a victory for showing the power of the black-hole-mimicking Z machine, but it’s something of a whitewash for black hole science, because it could mean that some of the astrophysics research in the last two decades could be flawed.

As for what can explain the way we detect accretion disk emissions if resonant Auger destruction doesn’t apply, the researchers aren’t entirely sure.

“[One] implication could be that lines from the highly charged iron ions are present, but the lines have been misidentified so far,” says Loisel.

“This is because black holes shift spectral lines tremendously due to the fact that photons have a hard time escaping the intense gravitation field.”

With the lab work done for the time being, solving the puzzle will now fall back to theoretical models, which will need to accommodate or otherwise counter this implicit debunking of resonant Auger destruction.

Doing so might not be easy – nothing in theoretical physics really is – but the team is upbeat about our best scientists being up to the job.

“Our research suggests it will be necessary to rework many scientific papers published over the last 20 years,” Loisel explains.

“We are optimistic that astrophysicists will implement whatever changes are found to be needed.”

The findings are reported in Physical Review Letters.

Thank God for Merging Neutron Stars

By Dr. Hugh Ross May 2, 2016

A new study of an ancient dwarf galaxy shows that human life—and certainly a global high-technology civilization—might not have been possible if it weren’t for neutron and black hole merger events. Without such events, Earth and the rest of the universe would lack the abundance of elements heavier than zinc that are needed for the existence of billions of people on a single planet.

Astronomers have known for several decades that elements heavier than zinc are synthesized through rapid (r) and slow (s) neutron-capture processes. The r-process is known to occur in core-collapse supernovae (very massive stars whose cores collapse when nuclear fusion suddenly becomes unable to sustain the cores against the stars’ gravitational forces) and is responsible for the production of about half of all the elements in the periodic table that are heavier than iron (see figure).

The s-process occurs in asymptotic giant branch stars (medium mass stars that have evolved to become hyperinflated red supergiants) and is responsible for the production of the other half of periodic table elements heavier than iron. However, the s-process is not independent of the r-process. The s-process converts elements produced by the r-process into different heavy elements.

Figure 1: The periodic table. All elements heavier than zinc (30 Zn) are either r-process elements or s-process elements that are derived from the production of r-process elements. Arsenic (33 As), selenium (34 Se), molybdenum (42 Mo), tin (50 Sn), and iodine (53 I) are vital poisons.
Image credit: Wikimedia Commons/Sandbh

The new study calls into question the assumption that all the universe’s r-process elements are manufactured by core-collapse supernovae. Core-collapse supernovae are exploding all the time in galaxies throughout the universe. Thus, if core-collapse supernovae were the sole or primary source of r-process elements, these elements would be continually produced. However, the appearance of a plateau (a leveling out over a long period of time) in the abundance of europium in several dwarf spheroidal galaxies indicates that r-process element enrichment is not continual but rather the result of rare but highly efficient events.1

Motivated to test this hypothesis, four astronomers from MIT, the Carnegie Institution for Science, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics measured the abundance of several r-process elements in seven of the nine brightest stars in Reticulum II.2 Reticulum II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy that has remained undisturbed by other galaxies or infalling intergalactic gas since it formed more than 10 billion years ago. The enrichment of the r-process elements that the four astronomers measured in the seven Reticulum II stars was “two or three orders of magnitude higher,” that is, approximately 100 to 1,000 times greater, than that which has been detected in any other ultra-faint dwarf galaxy.

This result shows the primary source of r-process elements is not core-collapse supernovae, but rare, highly productive events. Such events require the merging of two neutron stars, two black holes, a black hole and a neutron star, or either a black hole or a neutron star merging with a large star. Though indeed rare, when they do happen, the enormous densities and energies involved in such mergers generate and expel enormous quantities of r-process elements.

The amounts of r-process and s-process elements on Earth are both at the just-right levels for humans to exist and to make a global high-technology civilization possible. This fine-tuning is imperative because too much arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, tin, or iodine in our diets will kill us. Too little of any one of these elements in our diet will also kill us. Each one of these vital poisons must be consumed at a precise level.

Apparently, the universe is designed so that the just-right number and types of merging events occur to produce the necessary amount of r-process elements so that billions of human beings can enjoy a global high-technology civilization here on Earth and use that technology to take the Good News of salvation to all the people groups of the world.

“The Magicians Of The Gods” Validated by Researchers.

Is this stone proof an asteroid wiped out a civilization just like ours 13,000 years ago … and does it vindicate the maverick scholar who says a giant meteorite will destroy us in 2030?

Maverick archaeologist Graham Hancock insists that a highly evolved human civilisation was wiped out by a global catastrophe around 13,000 years ago

  • Maverick archaeologist Graham Hancock insists a human race existed before
  • He said an evolved human civilisation was wiped out by a global catastrophe
  • His book, Magicians Of The Gods, argues a mini Ice Age swept the planet 13,000 years ago
  • Now he claims the same could happen again in less than two decades time 

Suppose all the wildest theories and historical conspiracies of novelist Dan Brown were proven true. And the mind-reading, spoon-bending claims of Israeli psychic Uri Geller all turned out to be real as well.

That wouldn’t be half as extraordinary as the announcement in an obscure scientific journal this month that vindicated 20 years of maverick research and best-selling books by the eccentric archaeologist Graham Hancock.

His insistence that a highly evolved human civilisation was wiped out by a global catastrophe, remembered now only in myths and Biblical accounts such as the story of Noah and The Flood, has been mocked and dismissed by mainstream experts since he first spoke out in the mid-Nineties.

His latest book, Magicians Of The Gods, presented findings from all over the world as he argued that a mini Ice Age had swept the planet around 13,000 years ago, following a comet strike that caused devastating earthquakes and tsunamis.

Some of his most convincing, if rather arcane, evidence was discovered at a dig in Turkey known as Gobekli Tepe — which literally means Potbelly Hill. At this site close to the Syrian border, said Hancock, was found the most ancient work of monumental architecture on Earth.

Twice as old as Stonehenge, its engineering was far more skilled. Astronomical carvings and inscriptions on the stones served as aids for prehistoric stargazers, but also told stories. And one was of a comet that fell from the heavens, all but wiping out the human race.

Despite the painstaking construction of the book, which argues each point exhaustively, Hancock was met with the usual hoots of derision when Magicians Of The Gods appeared in 2015.

He was derided as a fantasist, a deluded amateur, and much merriment was poked at his long-held belief that hallucinogenic drugs are intellectual stimulants. This nonsense was archaeology for trippy hippies, laughed Hancock’s detractors.

So when research appeared last week that vindicated many of his claims and proved that this lone voice had been right for 20 years, perhaps it isn’t surprising that the announcement was as low-key as humanly possible. The carvings at Gobekli Tepe do indeed describe a comet strike, in 10,950BC, said some staid and very serious experts from the University of Edinburgh’s School of Engineering. Their report appeared as a paper in the little-known International Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, published by the University of the Aegean.

But the obscurity of the source cannot mask the scale of the scientific back-tracking. Hancock’s claims sound like a Hollywood disaster movie, a sci-fi epic and a detective thriller all rolled into one. His theories encompass the meaning of the pyramids and the future destruction of the planet.

If more conventional archaeologists are going to start agreeing with him, that amounts to a seismic shift of direction.

As the Telegraph newspaper report into the new scientific findings noted: ‘The idea had been originally put forward by author Graham Hancock in his book Magicians Of The Gods.’

What hasn’t changed is the starting point for all these theories. Just after 11,000BC, experts have long agreed, when the Earth was gradually emerging from the last Ice Age, a cataclysmic event caused sudden, shocking climate change. This ushered in a big chill known as the Younger Dryas, which lasted about 1,500 years.

Scientists had numerous theories to explain this but, in Magicians Of The Gods, Hancock argued that we had all the proof we needed: more than 200 ancient myths, belonging to tribes from the Arctic to the Equator, telling of an advanced human civilization destroyed by flood and fire.

Added to this was compelling physical evidence, in the form of giant boulders, platinum deposits and tiny diamonds found across North America — the detritus of a colossal impact.

There was only one explanation, said Hancock, and it matched the account carved into the limestone pillars at Gobekli Tepe . . . an account now verified by the team at Edinburgh University.

Our planet was hit by a comet. A blazing asteroid plunged out of the firmament and struck with the force of several thousand nuclear bombs bursting simultaneously. It wiped out many larger animal species, including the woolly mammoth and the sloth bear, and it almost destroyed humanity. Some people did survive, including the ancestors of the Ojibwa tribe of the Canadian grasslands, who still tell the story of the Long-Tailed Heavenly Climbing Star which swept out of the sky to scorch the earth. Their myths relate that it left behind ‘a different world.

After that, survival was hard work. The weather was colder than before’.

As Edinburgh’s Dr Martin Sweatman puts it: ‘One of the pillars at Gobekli Tepe seems to have served as a memorial to this devastating event — probably the worst day in history since the end of the Ice Age.’

Part of the Gobekli carving shows a headless man, a graphic symbol of human carnage.

The key finding was a series of animal carvings on a pillar known as the Vulture Stone, which represent constellations of stars as well as the comet itself. The stars were not represented as we would see them in the sky today, but as they were in 10,950BC — enabling the scientists to point with certainty to the date of the comet strike.

This means that when the Gobekli stones were made, around 9,000BC (that is, approximately 11,000 years ago), the sculptors had the astronomical know-how to backdate the constellations, shifting their pattern by a couple of millennia. And they were working with information that had been passed down over 2,000 years.

That shows spectacular sophistication. Yet according to common wisdom, humans were savages at this time, hunter-gatherers no more advanced than cavemen, without any knowledge of engineering or mathematics.

Most archaeologists struggle to explain how such a primitive culture could have built Gobekli Tepe. Now that the notion of a comet strike is beyond dispute, the thinking is that abundant wild crops of wheat and barley were wiped out by plunging temperatures.

Nomadic tribes were forced to combine, sharing their knowledge and co-operating to survive as they developed techniques to grow enough food to survive.

But as Hancock points out, this would have been an all-consuming challenge for people used to living in small, roaming groups. The switch from hunting to agriculture, and from mobile tent villages to settlements, would demand every ounce of energy, diplomacy and ingenuity our ancestors could muster.

How would they find the time to invent complex maths, plot the heavens, master architecture and learn intricate stone-working? All those skills and more were needed to build Gobekli Tepe.

Stonehenge, which was built around 5,000 years ago, consists of rough-hewn slabs. It is ingenious, but compared to Gobekli Tepe it’s like a parish church beside Chartres Cathedral.

For 20 years, Hancock has insisted that there is only one explanation for this explosive intellectual evolution. All that knowledge already existed. Earlier investigators, such as the Swiss author Erich von Daniken, proposed that Earth was visited by extra-terrestrial pioneers, aliens who brought intergalactic gifts of technology. Hancock’s theory is much more plausible: he believes a human civilization predated the comet strike, one at least as advanced as the Romans.

We don’t know what language they spoke, nor how they recorded their knowledge. But unless a band of refugee hunters in Turkey 11,000 years ago suddenly cracked every major branch of human learning, all at the same time, that elder civilization must have existed.

Sci-fi author Arthur C. Clarke famously said that, ‘any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic’. And the knowledge that survivors of the comet possessed must have seemed like pure sorcery to the ordinary nomad.

Perhaps that’s why, even now, we humans have an instinctive urge to believe in magic and feel sure it must have existed during some golden age — because to our ancient forebears, magic was a very real phenomenon.

The possessors of that inexplicable power, the ones Hancock calls the Magicians Of The Gods, must have worked out how to share their knowledge without giving away their tricks.

Post-apocalypse, they would have been fighting to survive in a very dangerous world. It seems likely that they posed as wizards, using showmanship to heighten the impact of their secrets. Carvings discovered at sites as far-flung as Bolivia, Mexico, Turkey and Iraq depict human figures in fish-like robes, wearing garments patterned with scales.

The mythical Oannes of Mesopotamia, for instance, had ‘the whole body of a fish, but underneath the head of the fish there was another head, a human one. It had a human voice.’

Oannes was accompanied by seven sages, who taught chemistry, medicine, stone-cutting and metal-working.

At the Temple of Horus in the Egyptian city of Edfu, ancient inscriptions also tell of seven sages. They were the last survivors of a sacred place, ‘the mansions of the gods’, whose home world had been destroyed by flood and fire. These sages had escaped death only because they were at sea when the catastrophe struck.

According to Arab traditions, the wisdom of these sages was stored in the pyramids of Giza, built to be a library for their books of knowledge. These included technologies that sound modern even to our ears: ‘[Military] Arms which did not rust, and glass which might be bent but not broken.’

All of this, the ideas that Hancock has been popularising since he published Fingerprints Of The Gods in 1996, has always seemed improbable to the conventional scientific community, which tended to dismiss his claims en masse.

With the discovery that the cornerstone of his theories was right, his other speculation is suddenly much less far-fetched.

But there is one aspect of his studies that is still too controversial to be given credence by mainstream scholars. And if he’s right about it, nothing else matters. The comet, the magicians, the messages across the millennia will all be irrelevant.

Hancock believes the Gobekli stones not only describe an ancient cosmic collision, but predict another.

He thinks that what hit Earth in 10,950BC was actually a massive piece of debris in the Taurid meteor stream, a belt containing millions of space rocks.

Hidden within that belt, according to astrophysicists, is an unexploded bomb of a planetoid, a superheated rock like an orbiting hand grenade.

Sealed inside its thin crust is a boiling mass of tar, building up pressure until it detonates. Thousands of white-hot boulders, a mile or more across, will be set spinning through the meteor stream . . . but we cannot say for certain when that will occur.

Many of these asteroids could be three times the size of the one that hit our planet 65 million years ago, wiping out the dinosaurs.

If one of those strikes, it could quite literally bring about the end of the world. And we are due to cross the Taurid meteor stream in 13 years, around 2030.

For many observers, the leap that Hancock makes from imaginative interpretation of solid evidence, to doom-laden predictions of global obliteration, is just too extreme. It is, quite literally, unthinkable.

But thanks to the Gobekli Tepe findings, mainstream science is being forced to get its head round the Hancock hypothesis.

Maybe it’s time to give more credence to all his theories . . . before it’s too late.

The Magicians Of The Gods: The Forgotten Wisdom Of Earth’s Lost Civilisation, by Graham Hancock (Coronet).

The Fingers Of God Point To No Big Bang

By Michael Goodspeed

“In the beginning, there was nothing, which exploded.”
— Terry Pratchett, Lords and Ladies

“The Big Bang is dead. It’s a theory based on a theory based on an assumption…and that assumption was wrong.”
–Amy Acheson, amateur astronomer

The French mathematician Jules Henri Poincaré once compared science to a house of stones. He said, “Science is facts; just as houses are made of stone, so is science made of facts; but a pile of stones is not a house, and a collection of facts is not necessarily science.” This analogy is apt, because like a house of stones, a collection of “facts” can easily crumble. “Facts” are not truth; they are the transient perception of truth.

For members of the general public with no training in the sciences, the “facts” are whatever they are told by the scientific establishment. The problem is, the “facts” are profoundly colored by interpretation, and interpretation is often based on nothing more than a guess. Perhaps this is most evident in the dominance of the Big Bang theory. Space age discovery has discredited and finally refuted the theory, yet within the halls of official science, it is presented as “fact.” Very few scientific publications today express doubt about a hypothesis which a few decades ago was acknowledged to be precarious. And the truth is, nothing has happened to substantiate the theory, despite repeated self-serving announcements of new “verifications.”

It’s amazing how simple the flaw is in the Big Bang theory. It all boils down to the credibility, or lack thereof, of the Doppler interpretation of redshift. Light frequencies from remote objects in space, when shifted toward the red, are claimed to signify the velocity of the object away from the observer — and no other explanation is admitted.

The Doppler effect is not complicated. Everyone is familiar with the sudden drop in pitch of a train’s whistle as it approaches and then moves past us. The same principle is used in a police radar gun, to measure the speed of an automobile. Once astronomers noted the varying degrees of redshift in remote space objects, most began to interpret this shift as a reliable indicator of velocity. This gave them a mathematical basis for calculating both the size and age of the universe, beginning with the Big Bang.

It is interesting to observe how a theory grows into “fact” over time, evidence be damned. Carl Sagan’s Cosmos was published almost a quarter-century ago. At that time, the Big Bang had not yet become a “fact”; questions were still permitted. On the issue of redshift Sagan wrote: “There is nevertheless a nagging suspicion among some astronomers, that all may not be right with the deduction, from the redshift of galaxies via the Doppler effect, that the universe is expanding. The astronomer Halton Arp has found enigmatic and disturbing cases where a galaxy and a quasar, or a pair of galaxies, that are in apparent physical association have very different redshifts….”

Sagan’s acknowledgment here shows a candor rarely found in standard treatments of astronomy for the general public. It’s also remarkable that 25 years ago, the astronomer Halton Arp had already posed the challenge to the expanding universe, and the Big Bang. And yet today, one would think the issues have all been settled.

Sagan continues, “If Arp is right, the exotic mechanisms proposed to explain the energy source of distant quasars — supernova chain reactions, supermassive black holes and the like — would prove unnecessary. Quasars need not then be very distant. But some other exotic mechanism will be required to explain the redshift. In either case, something very strange is going on in the depths of space.”

At the time of Sagan’s Cosmos, the Doppler interpretation of redshift was debatable. Since that time, discoveries in space have definitively refuted this interpretation, despite the absence of any public announcements to this effect.

The positions of remote galaxies have now been plotted, based on the common interpretation of redshift, and the result exposes the lie. When each galaxy is reduced to a dot on a “map,” something “miraculous” occurs.
(This “map” may be viewed at
tpod-archive-04/tpod-fingers-of-god.htm) [dead link]

The “map” appears to present the “fingers of God” pointing to Earth, as if we are are the center of the universe. How could this be? No one on either side of the debate considers the earth to be the center of the universe, and everyone seems to agree that no matter where an observer is placed, the same effect will be produced. It is an ILLUSION, and the most obvious explanation is that using redshift to measure distance will artificially stretch groups of galaxies along radial lines away from the observer. In other words, large clusters of galaxies in relative proximity to each other have been artificially projected outward along radial lines spanning billions of light years. To eliminate the illusion, you only need to eliminate the Doppler interpretation.

But I’ve oversimplified the picture. Cosmologists DO have a partial explanation for the “fingers of God” effect. They tell us that some of the galaxies along the radiating lines are “galaxy clusters,” moving around a common center of gravity. And since that involves motion both toward and away from the earth, in these cases the “illusion” should be expected. The problem is that the “fingers of God” span VASTLY larger distances, and across these distances the astronomers’ own assumptions preclude dynamic interactions. Indeed, Halton Arp has pointed to hundreds of instances in which multiple objects of different redshifts are part of coherent systems; the bodies are interacting physically and energetically, and obviously do not stand billions of light years away from each other.

Under the weight of this direct evidence — or should I say proof — the Big Bang hypothesis as a whole collapses. Yet instead of giving up a failed theory, astronomers have turned to a “get out of jail free” card — inventing invisible matter, with the option to place it wherever it will be mathematically useful to make their models work. This is the myth of “dark matter,” which in recent years has enabled astronomers to hold on to a picture of the universe defied by observation at every turn. Since it is both invisible and undetectable, there is no limit to the usefulness of dark matter, wherever the predictions of their theories have failed. In fact, this device can be applied to all anomalous movements within the macrocosm, with no possibility of refutation. Dark matter is outside the reach of any practical scientific tests, and we are only asked to believe in it because of the failures of standard models.

We are all familiar with the age old question, “If a tree falls in the forest, and there is no one there to hear it, does it still make a sound?” Another question might be, “If a fact is disproved, and no one admits it, is it still a fact?”

Nobel Prize-winning physicist Percy Williams Bridgman once said, “There is no adequate defense, except stupidity, against the impact of a new idea.” But most scientists are not guilty of stupidity. Rather, they are guilty of ASSUMPTIONS.

Theories were accepted as “facts” before all the evidence was in, and as a result, evidence contradicting the facts was either misinterpreted or ignored. It is time for assumptions to be set aside, so the truth might finally prevail.


Regarding the Article “The Fingers Of God Point To No Big Bang” By Michael Goodspeed, the simplest and maybe the correct explanation for the perceived red shift may be found with Paul Marmet.

In short, he states that the redshift can be explained by vast quantities of molecular hydrogen (H2) in interstellar space, which is not easily detectable, unlike singular hydrogen (H). Light interacts over enormous distances with this material (H2) and is slowly red-shifted, but the source of light is not receding at tremendous speed from the “Big Bang”.

Index of Papers, Books and relevant links

1-   A New Non-Doppler Redshift
Semi-classical physics can explain a slightly inelastic collision of photons due to traces of hydrogen in outer space.  These inelastic collisions are responsible for an observed redshift which is undistinguishable from the cosmological redshift.  Numerous observations give strong supporting evidence for that previously ignored natural phenomenon.

2-   Big Bang Cosmology Meets an Astronomical Death
More and more astronomical evidence points to inconsistencies in the Big Bang theory.  A canadian astrophysicist presents this evidence and explains how the cosmic redshift is caused by gaseous matter in space, not by the Doppler effect.

3-   Discovery of H2 in Space Explains Dark Matter and Redshift
Molecular hydrogen, difficult to detect and long ignored, is now shown to exist in sufficient quantity to explain Dark Matter and the cosmological redshift.  Exotic particles are not needed and the universe can be interpreted as not expanding.

4. –29

Why Carbon Dioxide can’t cause Global Warming

Chemistry Expert: Carbon Dioxide can’t cause Global Warming

Written by Dr Mark Imisides (Industrial Chemist)

Scarcely a day goes by without us being warned of coastal inundation by rising seas due to global warming.

Why on earth do we attribute any heating of the oceans to carbon dioxide, when there is a far more obvious culprit, and when such a straightforward examination of the thermodynamics render it impossible.

Carbon dioxide, we are told, traps heat that has been irradiated by the oceans, and this warms the oceans and melts the polar ice caps. While this seems a plausible proposition at first glance, when one actually examines it closely a major flaw emerges.

In a nutshell, water takes a lot of energy to heat up, and air doesn’t contain much. In fact, on a volume/volume basis, the ratio of heat capacities is about 3300 to 1. This means that to heat 1 litre of water by 1˚C it would take 3300 litres of air that was 2˚C hotter, or 1 litre of air that was about 3300˚C hotter!

This shouldn’t surprise anyone. If you ran a cold bath and then tried to heat it by putting a dozen heaters in the room, does anyone believe that the water would ever get hot?

The problem gets even stickier when you consider the size of the ocean. Basically, there is too much water and not enough air.

The ocean contains a colossal 1,500,000,000,000,000,000,000 litres of water! To heat it, even by a small amount, takes a staggering amount of energy. To heat it by a mere 1˚C, for example, an astonishing 6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 joules of energy are required.

Let’s put this amount of energy in perspective. If we all turned off all our appliances and went and lived in caves, and then devoted every coal, nuclear, gas, hydro, wind and solar power plant to just heating the ocean, it would take a breathtaking 32,000 years to heat the ocean by just this 1˚C!

In short, our influence on our climate, even if we really tried, is miniscule!

So it makes sense to ask the question – if the ocean were to be heated by ‘greenhouse warming’ of the atmosphere, how hot would the air have to get? If the entire ocean is heated by 1˚C, how much would the air have to be heated by to contain enough heat to do the job?

Well, unfortunately for every ton of water there is only a kilogram of air. Taking into account the relative heat capacities and absolute masses, we arrive at the astonishing figure of 4,000˚C.

That is, if we wanted to heat the entire ocean by 1˚C, and wanted to do it by heating the air above it, we’d have to heat the air to about 4,000˚C hotter than the water.

And another problem is that air sits on top of water – how would hot air heat deep into the ocean? Even if the surface warmed, the warm water would just sit on top of the cold water.

Thus, if the ocean were being heated by ‘greenhouse heating’ of the air, we would see a system with enormous thermal lag – for the ocean to be only slightly warmer, the land would have to be substantially warmer, and the air much, much warmer (to create the temperature gradient that would facilitate the transfer of heat from the air to the water).

Therefore any measurable warmth in the ocean would be accompanied by a huge and obvious anomaly in the air temperatures, and we would not have to bother looking at ocean temperatures at all.

So if the air doesn’t contain enough energy to heat the oceans or melt the ice caps, what does?

The earth is tilted on its axis, and this gives us our seasons. When the southern hemisphere is tilted towards the sun, we have more direct sunlight and more of it (longer days). When it is tilted away from the sun, we have less direct sunlight and less of it (shorter days).

The direct result of this is that in summer it is hot and in winter it is cold. In winter we run the heaters in our cars, and in summer the air conditioners. In winter the polar caps freeze over and in summer 60-70% of them melt (about ten million square kilometres). In summer the water is warmer and winter it is cooler (ask any surfer).

All of these changes are directly determined by the amount of sunlight that we get. When the clouds clear and bathe us in sunlight, we don’t take off our jumper because of ‘greenhouse heating’ of the atmosphere, but because of the direct heat caused by the sunlight on our body. The sun’s influence is direct, obvious, and instantaneous.

If the enormous influence of the sun on our climate is so obvious, then, by what act of madness do we look at a variation of a fraction of a percent in any of these variables, and not look to the sun as the cause?

Why on earth (pun intended) do we attribute any heating of the oceans to carbon dioxide, when there is a far more obvious culprit, and when such a straightforward examination of the thermodynamics render it impossible.


Dr. Mark Imisides is an industrial chemist with extensive experience in the chemical industry, encompassing manufacturing, laboratory management, analysis, waste management, dangerous goods and household chemistry. He currently has a media profile in The West Australian newspaper and on Today Tonight. For a sample of his work visit